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氯化石蜡的用途

发布时间:2015-06-27 点击数:2224

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of certain organic compounds containingchloride: polychlorinated n-alkanes (see example structure to the right). The chlorination degree of CPs can vary between 30 and 70 wt%. CPs are subdivided according to their carbon chain length into short chain CPs (SCCPs, C10–13), medium chain CPs (MCCPs, C14–17) and long chain CPs (LCCPs, C>17). Depending on chain length and chlorine content, CPs are colorless or yellowish liquids or solids.

CPs were introduced in the 1930s. Currently, over 200 CP formulations are in use for a wide range of industrial applications, such as flame retardantsand plasticisers, as additives in metal working fluids, in sealants, paints and coatings and as a solvent for Dichloramine T (germicide).

SCCPs are classified as persistent and their physical properties (octanol-water partition coefficient logKOW 4.4–8, depending on the chlorination degree) imply a high potential for bioaccumulation. Furthermore, CPs are classified as toxic to aquatic organisms, and carcinogenic to rats and mice. SCCPs were categorised ingroup 2B as possibly carcinogenic to humans from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A global ban on SCCPs is being considered under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

 

氯化石蜡(CPS)是含有氯的某些复杂的有机化合物的混合物:氯化烷烃(见例结构的权利)。CPS的氯化程度的3070重量%之间变化。CPS是按照它们的碳链长度为短链CPS细分(短链氯化石蜡,C1013),中链CPSmccpsC1417)和长链的CPSLCCPC17)。根据链长度和氯含量,CPS是无色或淡黄色液体或固体。

CPS20世纪30年代。目前,超过200CP制剂用于广泛的工业应用,如阻燃剂和增塑剂,在金属加工液中添加剂,密封剂,涂料和溶剂为二氯胺T(杀菌剂)。

短链氯化石蜡分为持续性和物理性质(正辛醇-水分配系数logKow 4.48,根据氯化度)意味着积累高电位。此外,CPS为对水生生物的毒性和致癌性,小鼠和大鼠。短链氯化石蜡的分类在2B组为来自国际癌症研究署的人类可能致癌物(IARC)。对短链氯化石蜡的全球禁令被斯德哥尔摩公约关于持久性有机污染物的考虑。

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